Ashtanga Yoga

Ashtanga Yog Darshan was written by God,Patanjali named as Patanjali Yog Darshan. Ashtanga means eight limbs. So,in this Yog Darshan, eight limbs of Yoga are explained in four padh namely, Samadhi, Sadhana,Vibhooti and Kaivalya Padh.Total sutras mentioned in this Yog Darshan are 196. For eg.,To reach the top floor of building there are total eight steps to reach from ground to top.Similary, here ground is the Yama(1st Limb Of Yoga),Niyama(2nd Limb),Asanas(3rd Limb),Pranayama(4th),Praytahara(5th),Dharana(6th),Dhyana(7th) and top is the Samadhi(8th Limb Of Yoga). Hence, in this Yog Darshan it is explained how to move towards each an every step of Yoga in a sequential manner to achieve its fruitful results.

Patanjali-Selected Yog Sutras

1.Samadhi Padh(Theory)
1.1 atha- yoganusasanamNow Yoga is explained.
1.2 yogah- chittavrttinirodhahYoga is restraining the activities of the mind.
1.3 tada-drastuh-svarupe- avasthanamAt that time (when the thought waves are stilled), the perceiver rests in his own true nature.
1.4 vrttisarupyam-itaratraWhen the mind is not concentrated the perceiver identifies with is modifications.
1.12 abhyasa-vairagyabhyam-tannirodhahTheir control (of chitta vrittis) is brought about by practice and non-attachement.
2.Sadhana Padh(Practice)
2.28 yoganganusthanat - asuddhiksaye- jnana diptih-avivekakhyatehBy practicing the various steps of Yoga, impurities are destroyed and spiritual illumination arises, which develops into awareness of Reality.
2.29 yama-niyama-asana-pranayama- pratyahara-dharana-dhyana- samadhayah- astau-anganiYama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi are the eight limbs.
2.30 ahimsa-satya-asteya-brahmacarya- aparigrahah-yamahThe yamas consistof non-injury, truthfulness,non-stealing, continence, and non-acquisitiveness.
2.31 jati-desa-kala-samaya-anavacchinnah- sarvabhaumah-mahavratamThese (abstentions) are not limited by social structure, location, time or circumstances, and they constitute the great (universal) vow.
2.32 saucha-santosa-tapah-svadhyaya- isvarapranidhanani-niyamahThe niyamas consist of cleanliness, contentment, austerity, self-study and self- surrender.
2.33 vitarkabadhane-pratipaksabhavanamWhen negative or harmful thoughts disturb the mind, they can be overcome by constant pondering over their opposites.
2.34 vitarkah-himsadayah-krta-karita- anumoditah-lobha-krodha- mohaporvakah-mrdu-madhya- adhimatrah-duhkha-ajnana- anantaphalah-iti-pratipaksabhavanamNegative thoughts and emotions such as violence, whether committed, abetted, or caused through greed, anger or delusion, and whether present in mild, medium or great intensity, result in endless pain and ignorance. Thus there is the necessity for pondering over the opposites.
2.35 ahimsapratisthayam-tatsannidhau- vairatyagahWhen non-violence is firmly established, hostility vanishes in the yogi's presence.
2.36 satyapratisthayam-kriyaphala- asrayatvamWhen truth is firmly established, the yogi attains the result of action without acting.
2.37 asteyapratisthayam-sarvaratna- upasthanamWhen non-stealing is firmly established,all wealth comes to the yogi.
2.38 brahmacaryapratisthayam-viryalabhahWhen brahmacharya, or sexual continence, is firmly established, vibrant vitality is gained.
2.39 aparigrahasthairye-janmakathamta- sambodhahWhen non-acquistiveness is established, an understanding of the purpose of birth is gained.
2.40 saucat-svangajugupsa- parairasamsargahFrom purification comes disgust for one's own body and a disinclination to come into physical contact with others.
2.41 sattvasuddhi-saumanasya-aikagrya- indriyajaya-atmadarsana-yogyatvani caForm purification also come clarity of mind, cheerfulness, one-pointedness, control of the senses, and fitness, for realization of the Self.
2.42 samtosat-anuttamah-sukhalabhahFrom contentment comes supreme happiness.
2.43 kayendriyasiddhih-asuddhiksayat- tapasahThe destruction of impurities through austerities brings about powers to the body and senses.
2.44 svadhyayat-istadevatasamprayogahThrough study that leads to knowledge of the Self comes union with the desried ishtadevata.
2.45 samadhisiddhih-isvarapranidhanatFrom surrender to Ishwara comes the accomplishment of attaining samadhi.
2.46 sthirasukhamasanamAsanas should be steady and comfortable.
2.47 prayatnasaithilya-anantasamapattibhyamPosture is mastered by releasing tension and meditation on the Unlimited.
2.48 tato-dvandvanabhighatahFrom that (mastery of asana), no assaults come from the pairs of opposites.
2.49 tasminsati- svasaprasvasayoh-gativiccedah pranayamahThe next step is pranayama, which is the control of the inhalation and exhalation of breath.
2.50 bahya-abhyantara-stamhavrittih desa-kala-samkhyabhih- paridrsto-d Trghasoksmah Pranayama is inhalation, exhalation or retention of breath; it is regulated by place, time and number, and (becomes progressively) prolonged and subtle.
2.51 bahya-abhyantara-visayaksepi- caturthahThe fourth type (of pranayama) goes beyond the sphere of inhalation and exhalation.
2.52 tatah-ksiyate-prakasavaranamThat unveils the light.
2.53 dharanasu ca-yogyata manasahAnd makes the mind fit for dharana (concentration).
2.54 svavisaya-asamprayoge- cittasya-svarupanukara iva-indriyanam pratyaharahPratyahara is the imitation of the mind by the senses, which comes by withdrawing the senses from their objects.
2.55 tatah - parama vasyata - indriyanamFrom that comes the highest mastery over the senses.
3.Vibhooti Padh(Divine manifestations of power)
3.1 desabandhah-cittasya dharanaDharana is fixing the mind on one object.
3.2 tatra-pratyayaikatanata -dhyanamAn unbroken flow of perception between the mind and objects is dhyana, meditation.
3.3 tadeva-arthamatranirbhasam- svarupasunyamiva-samadhihWhen consciousness of subject and object disappears and only the meaning remains, it is called samadhi.